10 BENEFITS OF WHEY PROTEIN
- Whey is an Excellent Source of High-Quality Protein
- Whey Protein Promotes Muscle Growth
- Whey Protein May Lower Blood Pressure
- Whey Protein May Help Treat Type 2 Diabetes
- Whey Protein May Help Reduce Inflammation
- Whey Protein May Be Beneficial for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
- Whey Protein May Enhance the Body’s Antioxidant Defenses
- Whey Protein May Have Beneficial Effects on Blood Fats
- Whey Protein is Highly Satiating (Filling), Which May Help Reduce Hunger
- Whey Protein Can Help You Lose Weight
1. Whey is an Excellent Source of High-Quality Protein
What Is Whey Protein?
Casein and whey are the two most abundant proteins in milk. Whey contributes up 20% of the protein, whereas casein makes up 80%. Despite the fact that both whey protein and soy protein are good sources of protein, the general public is better familiar with whey.
This is owing to the fact that most gyms, grocery shops, and wholesale food enterprises have large displays of it for sale. Since the 1970s, it’s been a favourite among bodybuilders. This is for a good purpose.
Whey is a superior protein source that contains all nine of the body’s necessary amino acids. Our bodies can’t produce certain amino acids, thus they must be acquired from our diets. Whey is a “complete protein” because of this. Valine, Leucine, and Isoleucine are the three most important branched-chain amino acids for muscle anabolism.
There is no better source of branched chain amino acids than whey protein. Leucine is the most significant of the three for body builders and those who want to gain muscle mass through exercise.
Whey protein’s health advantages go far beyond its ability to aid athletes in building muscle mass. Milk is essential for the growth and development of a baby’s immune system throughout the first six months of life.
Whey proteins are increasingly being shown to not only be nutritive but also to have a function in disease prevention. Animal studies have shown that whey proteins may have anti-cancer effects as well.
Whey Protein Is a “Fast” Source of Protein Amino acids are the building blocks from which proteins in the body are synthesised. Dietary amino acids are absorbed at varying rates by the intestines.
An rise in amino acid levels induced by whey protein is both significant and short-lived. There is a long-lasting plateau of amino acids in the blood caused by casein ( For this reason, many professional bodybuilders will consume whey protein just before a workout to enhance amino acid levels quickly, but will then consume a smoothie containing casein before going to bed to increase amino acid levels for a longer period of time.
What Is the Source of Whey Protein? A wide range of sources are used to produce whey protein. In order to extract micellar casein from skim milk, whey proteins are routinely spray dried as a byproduct.
Native whey proteins, which have a protein concentration of around 90%, are known as such.
For the most part, it’s waste from the cheesemaking process that ends up as whey in the final product. The casein fraction of milk proteins is precipitated using either the enzyme rennet or an acid solution. whey is found in the liquid that remains after precipitation (known as the permeate).
Cottage cheese and Greek yoghurt manufacture both produce whey as a byproduct. In comparison to the original whey protein derived from micellar casein synthesis, the permeate has a substantially lower protein level.
Curd, the precipitated product from which cheese is made, can also be used to extract whey.
Sweet whey is made from rennet-clotted whey and has a higher pH, whereas acid whey is made from casein obtained by acid casein synthesis.
The minerals in the liquid may need to be removed in a subsequent phase of the whey processing.
Ion exchange, precipitation, or electrodialysis and membrane filtration can be used to get the appropriate mineral content. Next, the demineralized whey powder is evaporated before being sprayed-dried, resulting in the final product. It is also feasible to make whey powder that is lower in lactose.
When it comes to drying out the whey powder, the drier utilised makes all the difference.
Spray drying is the most common method of making whey powder, owing to its ability to generate an uniform final product. It’s possible to use roller drying as well, but some say that method has a greater propensity to generate flaked-looking and potentially brownish-colored result.
Individual whey proteins, such as albumins and globulins, can be found in abundance.
What you eat depends on the animal from which it came. Dairy cows are the primary source of the whey proteins we eat in the United States. They are alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin.
It is possible to utilise an agglomerator to enhance the particle size after spray drying the whey powder. In the process of “instantizing,” the whey powder is made more readily dispersible or dissolveable.
There Are Several Types of Whey Protein. Whey powder is a protein-rich milk sugar that is high in water, fat, lactose, and ash. A typical whey protein product has a protein level of 15% to 30%, depending on the kind of product. This is a far cry from what the customer is looking for.
A wide variety of membrane filtering processes, combined with flavouring and colouring, are employed to generate a desired product that is often spray-dried.
Whey powder is a protein-rich milk sugar that is high in water, fat, lactose, and ash. A typical whey protein product has a protein level of 15% to 30%, depending on the kind of product.
This is a far cry from what the customer is looking for. A wide variety of membrane filtering processes, combined with flavouring and colouring, are employed to generate a desired product that is often spray-dried.
2. Whey Protein Promotes Muscle Growth
In comparison to other protein sources, whey has a greater concentration of essential amino acids than any other, making it a superior source of high-quality protein. whey is an ideal protein source because of its high concentrations of leucine, which help to increase muscle protein synthesis (MPS) while reducing muscle protein breakdown (MPB).
Whey protein supplementation has been shown to increase muscle growth in young people without affecting strength performance, and this review summarises the existing scientific data.
To present, human studies have shown that resistance-trained individuals who consume whey protein as part of their diet gain the most muscle mass.
A daily protein intake of 1.6 g/kg reduces the reported gains, although only little. At rest, a single feeding appears to be all that is needed to elicit a maximum postprandial response of MPS. A single dosage of protein of >0.40 g/kg and a daily protein intake of >1.6 g/day have been recommended as ideal to maximally activate MPS following a high volume workout with substantial muscle mass, however this quantity is beneficial in promoting an anabolic response.
Young resistance-trained athletes may benefit more from whey protein consumption when it is combined with carbohydrate, other protein sources, and creatine monohydrate as part of a multi-ingredient admixture.
In order to corroborate these suggestions, researchers need to conduct studies that examine how the MPS responds to a range of workout configurations, including varied intensities, training volumes (low or moderate), and the quantity of the worked muscle mass.
All IAA criteria must be met by 0.66 g/kg/day of this protein source to be considered an excellent quality protein source for adults.
The eaten protein sources should give an average of 0.059 mg/g of digestible leucine in order to meet the bare minimum daily dietary requirement of leucine (0.039 g/kg).
● A greater (>1) leucine AARR (e.g., WPI, WPC) may be more appropriate in some conditions, such as frequent exercise training, to fulfil the physiological demands of exercise, resulting in better training adaptation and results.
● Whey protein has been shown to increase muscle growth in resistance training individuals, according to current research.
● In order to induce MPS, young people may require a protein intake of at least >010/kg, with an IAA and leucine content of 0.060 g/kg and 0.010 g/kg, respectively, per meal. To optimise the MPS response, higher dosages of 0.24 g/kg of protein per intake, comprising >0.10 g/kg of IAA and >0.010 g/kg of leucine, may be required.
Higher single protein dosages may help to appropriately promote the MPS response under exercise settings.
For example, the consumption of >0.40 g/kg of high-quality protein supplying 0.20 g/kg of IAA and >0.040 g/kg of leucine might be considered after particularly difficult workout sessions (including larger workout volumes and a substantial quantity of working muscle mass). This study shows that, gramme for gramme, whey protein extracts (WPI, WPC, or WPH) are more effective than other protein sources such as pea, rice, soy, or beef.
When it comes to developing muscle growth in resistance-trained athletes, incorporating a variety of whey protein products into the diet may be an effective way to meet the body’s nutritional needs while also maximising training adaption. When a person has a daily protein intake of 1.6 g/kg, the impacts of these enhancements are lessened.
When ingested in combination with carbs, creatine monohydrate, and other protein sources like casein, the additional benefits of whey protein-containing supplements on lean mass accretion are particularly apparent.
3.Whey Protein May Lower Blood Pressure
Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of whey protein or peptide on blood pressure in persons with abnormal blood pressure.
Taking 8 weeks of intact whey protein supplementation reduced 24-hour ambulatory SBP and DBP in persons with pre- and moderate hypertension, as shown in the Fekete research (Fekete et al., 2016). SBP and DBP were both considerably reduced in persons with high blood pressure after six weeks of whey beverage drinking (Fluegel et al., 2010).
Lee, on the other hand, found that moderately hypertensive people who regularly drank a milk drink containing whey peptides during a 12-week period saw no change in blood pressure (Lee, Skurk, Hennig, & Hauner, 2007). Because a substantial reduction in SBP was only seen in the study’s overweight and obese patients, we concluded that the impact of whey protein on blood pressure was weight-dependent.
Pal study participants had greater average BMI (31.3 kg/m2) and somewhat lower blood pressure when compared to those in our study (SBP 119.3 mmHg). After consuming whey protein for 12 weeks, they discovered that SBP dropped by 4%, but no differences between the whey protein and control groups were noted (Pal & Ellis, 2010).
Even though the Flaim research with obese (average BMI: 37.1 kg/m2) diabetic individuals had the same baseline blood pressure (average SBP: 133.3 mmHg) as our study, there was no change in blood pressure following a 12-week intervention with whey protein.
We split the individuals into two groups based on their BMI and then examined the changes in body composition between the control and whey protein groups in order to determine the impact of weight on blood pressure. Athletes and bodybuilders are the major users of whey protein powder, which is the principal constituent in most protein powders.
Whey protein substantially reduced body weight and fat mass in overweight and obese people in a meta-analysis involving nine randomised controlled studies (Wirunsawanya, Upala, Jaruvongvanich, & Sanguankeo, 2018). Whey protein had a greater impact on body fat than on lean tissue in overweight and obese subjects in the current investigation. The Flaim research found that whey protein supplementation dramatically reduced fat mass (Flaim et al., 2017). Whey protein supplementation dramatically reduced lipid droplets in the liver in ApoE/ mice, but had no effect on body weight, in a recent animal research (Zhang et al., 2018).
Body composition can be improved by enhancing satiety and reducing appetite. Fast proteins, such as whey protein, may be more filling than slow proteins, according to Hall’s research, which indicated that postprandial circulating levels of amino acids were related with enhanced fullness (Hall, Millward, Long, & Morgan, 2003).
Aside from glucagon-like peptide-1, DPP-4, and cholecystokinin, Pesta observed that whey protein ingestion raised the levels of these satiety hormones. Among carbs and lipids, protein has been reported to have the greatest diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) values (Pesta & Samuel, 2014).
By increasing the amount of oxygen required for protein metabolism, DIT may promote satiety (Pesta and Samuel, 2014; Westerterp-Plantenga, Rolland, Wilson, & Westerterp), which may improve satiety.
Whey protein includes an ACE inhibitory peptide that inhibits the enzymatic conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, therefore decreasing blood pressure and improving cardiovascular health. In clinical medicine, ACE inhibition is now a well-established concept for treating hypertension (Messerli, Bangalore, Bavishi, & Rimoldi, 2018).
The intestines of humans is thought to breakdown whey protein into antihypertensive active peptides. However, the blood levels of ACE and angiotensin II did not alter significantly. Intestinal or plasma peptidases may have degraded bioactive peptides, or there may have been a lack of intestinal absorption. Although in vitro ACE inhibitory activity may correspond with antihypertensive efficacy, this is not always the case.
Despite the fact that whey protein hydrolysate and fractions have ACE-inhibiting activity, they did not significantly lower the blood pressure of SHR following one oral treatment in Marques’ investigation (Marques et al., 2015).
Lipid profile, cytokine levels, and antioxidant indices are all thought to help manage blood pressure. As a result of inflammation, endothelial function is also affected (Ballard et al., 2013; Da Silva, Bigo, Barbier, & Rudkowska, 2017). Antioxidative and inflammatory cytokine levels were not different between the two groups in this investigation.
Even though fat mass was dramatically reduced by the whey protein intervention, Flaim’s findings are in line with ours in that it had no effect on markers of oxidative damage, inflammation, or glucose levels (Flaim et al., 2017). Pre- and moderately hypertensive people found that whey protein dramatically lowered blood total cholesterol and borderline decreased triacylglycerol levels (Fekete et al., 2016).
Due to differences in study designs and observational subjects, animal studies and human trials involving whey protein intervention in the above indexes yielded inconsistent results (Avila et al., 2018; Ballard et al., 2013; Claessens et al., 2009; Da Silva et al., 2017; Fekete et al., 2016; Flaim et al., 2017; Hodgson et al., 2012; Kjlbok et al., 2017; Pal & Ellis, 2010, Tranberg, Madsen, Hansen and Hellgren, 2015).
Endothelial function and blood pressure management depend on a careful balance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Endothelial function is influenced by vasoconstrictor ET1 and vasodilator NO.
In human umbilical vein endothelial cells after a 24-hour incubation period, whey protein hydrolysate reduced TNF-induced endothelial inflammation by regulating TNF and endothelial NO synthase gene expression (Da Silva et al., 2017). In plasma NO and ET1, we found no differences from the earlier animal investigation (Zhou et al., 2017).
Most of the actions of NO and ET1 are either paracrine or autocrine (Ballard et al., 2013). Because of this, it is possible that serum levels of NO and ET1 might not accurately represent the drug’s biological action.
We discovered that whey protein supplementation increased FMD, the gold standard for assessing endothelial function, in our study (Korkmaz & Onalan, 2008). After consuming whey-derived extract for 30 and 120 minutes, subjects with impaired brachial artery FMD showed a substantial increase in postprandial FMD (Ballard et al., 2013).
We found no impact on plasma inflammatory markers, plasma nitric oxide, or serum ACE activity in the Fekete’s trial, although it did improve FMD by 24 hour blood pressure in the animal (Fekete et al., 2016).
However, further research is needed to confirm the link between FMD and high blood pressure (Liu et al., 2017).
There are a number of drawbacks to this research. In the first place, just 54 people participated in the study. Statistical significance can’t be ruled out even if the sample size is large enough. We also utilised less whey protein (30 grammes per day) than other trials in Western nations (>50 grammes per day) (Claessens et al., 2009; Fekete et al., 2016; Pal & Ellis, 2010).
The Chinese Nutrition Association recommends a daily protein consumption of 55 grammes for women and 65 grammes for men who engage in moderate physical activity (Chinese Nutrition Society, 2016). In general, this suggestion was required for protein consumption in diets.
We chose a more realistic intervention quantity in this trial, despite the fact that a bigger dosage could improve the possibility of finding a beneficial change in blood pressure. It’s possible that the control maltodextrin has further influence on the results we saw. In addition, the white coat hypertension phenomena may affect the blood pressure reading.
Finally, whey protein substantially reduced SBP in overweight and obese people who were pre- and moderately hypertensive. Endothelial function was also increased by whey protein supplementation.
Rather than its impact on lipid profiles, inflammatory responses, or antioxidation, whey protein’s influence on body weight and composition is critical in controlling blood pressure.
4.Whey Protein May Help Treat Type 2 Diabetes
Acute whey protein effects on postprandial glycaemic excursions are promising, but the long-term effectiveness and appropriate use in the management of type 2 diabetes have still to be discovered.
As HbA1c levels rise, so does postprandial glycaemia; therefore, individuals with mild to moderate HbA1c levels and well-controlled fasting glucose are most likely to benefit from whey protein’s ability to reduce postprandial glucose levels.
As an alternative, the combination of insulin and short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists has proved to be useful in individuals who are less well managed, such as the combination of insulin for fasting glucose control and whey protein for postprandial glycaemia reduction. To further enhance GLP-1 activation, it may be worthwhile to investigate if whey protein and a DPP-IV inhibitor are combined.
In order to increase incretin secretion and reduce hunger before the main meal, the timing of protein administration is critical. This, along with the ideal whey protein dosage, requires further refining.
5.Whey Protein May Help Reduce Inflammation
One way that whey may benefit human health is through decreasing levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammation-sensing biomarker. As a result, researchers conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the correlation between the two.
Research eligible for inclusion was identified in July 2014 by a thorough literature search. Pooled effects were calculated using either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model.
The supplementation of whey protein and its derivatives reduced CRP levels in the meta-analysis of nine trials by 0.42 mg/L (95 percent CI 0.96, 0.13), although this was not statistically significant. There was a fair amount of variation in the results of the investigations.
In trials with a daily whey intake 20 g/day, whey reduced CRP by 0.72 mg/L (95 percent CI 0.97, 0.47), whereas in trials with a baseline CRP 3 mg/L, whey reduced CRP by 0.67 mg/L (95 percent CI 1.21, 0.14).
The baseline CRP level was found to be a possible impact modifier of whey supplementation in lowering CRP, according to meta-regression analysis. There is insufficient evidence that whey and its derivates have an influence on CRP levels to warrant further investigation.
However, those who take high dosages or have high baseline CRP levels may see considerable reductions in CRP.
6.Whey Protein May Be Beneficial for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
In chronic inflammatory bowel illness, the amino acids threonine and cysteine, or both, may be limiting for mucin formation, according to data from the literature. Cheese whey protein has a higher concentration of these amino acids than casein.
The protective effect of cheese whey protein was studied in rats fed diets containing casein, cheese whey protein, or casein supplemented with threonine and cysteine and exposed to dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced large intestinal inflammation.
Genome-wide gene expression profiling was utilised to measure inflammation in samples of faeces or stool collected for biochemical analysis. Mucin synthesis was measured by gene expression of rat mucin 2 (MUC2) and by measuring faecal mucin excretion.
Quantitative PCR was used to identify faecal lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Inflammation indicators such as interleukin 1beta, calprotectin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were decreased by dietary cheese whey protein, as were symptoms such as diarrhoea and faecal blood loss.
The production of faecal mucin was also increased by cheese whey protein, which had no effect on MUC2 gene expression. The number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteriums in the faeces was also raised by cheese-whey protein consumption. Both threonine and cysteine were equally effective when taken orally.
Conclusions from this study show that cheese whey protein protects rats against the intestinal inflammation caused by DSS. Its threonine and cysteine content is thought to be responsible for this.
Intestinal mucin production can be stimulated, and the makeup of the microbiota can be altered, to provide protection.
7.Whey Protein May Enhance the Body’s Antioxidant Defenses
In comparison to casein-containing formula, enteral formula containing whey protein may reduce inflammation and boost antioxidant defences in senior stroke patients.
The antioxidant system based on glutathione (GSH) is the most important cellular defence mechanism. When cells are more active, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed, and this tiny molecule is depleted.
Lymphocytes and muscle cells can both be affected by this phenomena during the development of the immune response and during severe exercise, respectively. So much research has been and continues to be done on this little tripeptide molecule, which is not unexpected.
During immunological insufficiency, whey protein concentrate has been found to be an effective and safe cysteine donor for GSH replacement. Intracellular GSH production relies on the essential amino acid cysteine. Whey protein concentrates have been shown to have anti-carcinogenic and anti-cancer properties in animal studies. Because of their ability to increase GSH concentrations in important tissues, they are able to have an anti-tumor effect on low-volume tumours.
Oxygen radical production is thought to be a vital step in carcinogenesis, hence the influence of GSH on free radicals as well as carcinogen detoxification could be significant in preventing various processes of carcinogenesis.
A dietary supplement containing whey protein may have an anti-tumor impact in certain urogenital malignancies, according to published case studies. Cancer researchers and clinical oncologists are likely to be interested in this non-toxic dietary intervention because it is not based on current cancer chemotherapy concepts.
8.Whey Protein May Have Beneficial Effects on Blood Fats
Dairy whey protein, according to the available research, may be the primary dairy component responsible for the health advantages now linked with greater dairy consumption.
Blood pressure and cardiovascular health may be improved by whey protein supplementation. Overweight/obese people were given either casein or glucose (as controls) and their blood pressure, cardiovascular function, and inflammatory markers were measured.
The researchers then compared the results. Using a parallel design, the participants were assigned to either whey protein, casein, or glucose supplementation for 12 weeks.
Approximately 70 men and women with a BMI of 31.3 +/- 0.8 completed the research. We found substantial reductions in SBP in the whey and casein groups at week 6 compared to baseline (P = 0.028 and P = 0.020, respectively) and week 12 compared to baseline (P = 0.020 and P = 0.017, respectively).
DBP dropped considerably (P = 0.038 and P = 0.042, respectively) in the whey and casein groups by week 12 compared to baseline. At week 12, DBP was considerably lower in the whey and casein groups compared to the control group (P = 0.025 and P = 0.038, respectively). A significantly reduced augmentation index (AI) was seen in the whey group compared to the control group after 12 weeks (P = 0.021).
In comparison to the control and casein groups, AI in the whey group dropped significantly after 12 weeks (P = 0.006). Inflammatory indicators did not differ significantly across groups or among groups. Overweight and obese people can benefit from using whey protein supplements, according to this research.
In a six-week study, whey protein drinks decreased blood pressure in young men and women. Participants who consumed either hydrolyzed or non-hydrolyzed whey protein at a daily intake of 28 grammes showed no variations in systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial blood pressure.
However, whey beverage consumption significantly reduced SBP, DBP, and MAP by 8, 8, and 6.4 mm Hg in young adults with increased DBP and SBP (P 0.001 for all comparisons).
After the whey beverage intervention, SBP dropped by 3.8 mm Hg (P 0.04) solely in participants with increased SBP. SBP, DBP, and MAP did not change in healthy individuals.
Additionally, whey beverages reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations by more than one-tenth of a percent (P 0.001). Prehypertension and/or stage 1 hypertension may benefit from the usage of whey protein drinks as a dietary supplement.
9.Whey Protein is Highly Satiating (Filling), Which May Help Reduce Hunger
Comorbidities like metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease make obesity a huge public health issue. Short and long-term mechanisms need to be targeted in order to solve this issue. Even though every dietary or lifestyle adjustment must be tailored to the individual, a weight loss plan based on a modestly higher protein intake and a restricted consumption of calories may be successful.
The following are some of the potential advantages of consuming protein: satiety—protein generally increases satiety to a greater extent than carbohydrate or fat and may facilitate a reduction in energy consumption under ad libitum dietary conditions While substantially increased protein intake may have health benefits, these benefits need to take into account traditional dietary habits and individual heterogeneity.
For those who are overweight or obese, whey protein supplementation appears to have a more immediate and favourable influence on postprandial feelings of satiety and fullness than casein or carbohydrate intake.
At a 10% concentration, whey protein reduced hunger more than casein or soy protein. Whey protein, at a concentration of 25%, elicited greater increases in hormone levels than casein or soy protein.
A variation in appetite ratings arises when certain amino acids are above or below specific threshold values, according to the findings.
10.Whey Protein Can Help You Lose Weight
In part, this suggests that the metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets is supported by the positive effects on body mass and composition that these diets have regardless of caloric consumption.
Energy-restricted, high-protein, low-fat diets have the same nutritional and metabolic advantages as a high-carbohydrate diet, if not more.
Satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition are just a few of the factors that dietary protein affects when it comes to weight reduction and maintenance. Eating too many amino acids may lead to feelings of fullness, especially in “incomplete” protein-rich diets. protein and urea production, and gluconeogenesis; “complete” proteins with all essential amino acids have higher increases in energy consumption than lower-quality proteins.
Young individuals and the elderly show no protein-induced impacts on net bone balance or calcium balance in terms of harmful side effects.-effects Bone mineral mass is increased and the risk of osteoporotic fracture is reduced by dietary protein.
Nitrogen intake has a favourable impact on calcium balance and, as a result, on bone mineral content preservation after weight loss. The loss of nephron bulk caused by sulfur-containing amino acids raises blood pressure.
Obese and diabetic patients are among the most vulnerable populations. Maintaining absolute protein intake during negative energy balance, i.e., satiety, energy expenditure, and fat-free mass preservation, causes energy inefficiency, resulting in weight loss or weight maintenance.
But the long-term link between protein synthesis and the preservation of fat-free mass remains a mystery.
Increasing your protein intake is a tried-and-true method for losing weight.
Increasing your protein intake may help you lose weight by:
Reducing calorie consumption by suppressing hunger, Increasing the rate at which you burn calories. Assisting in weight loss while preserving lean muscular mass Fat burning and satiety are both enhanced by whey protein, which has been found to be superior to other protein forms.
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