Phycocyanin – Immunotherapy, Natural Anti-Cancer Supplement, 60 Veg Capsules, Pack of 1

Phycocyanin – Immunotherapy, Natural Anti-Cancer Supplement, 60 Veg Capsules, Pack of 1

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HealthDiva Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex that belongs to the phycobiliprotein family, along with it also belongs to allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin. It is an accessory pigment to chlorophyll. 

All phycobiliproteins are water-soluble, which means that they cannot exist within the membrane-like carotenoids can. Instead, phycobiliproteins aggregate to form clusters that adhere to the membrane called phycobilisomes. 

Now if we talk about Structure then HealthDiva C-Phycocyanin shares a common structural theme with all phycobiliproteins. The structure begins with the assembly of phycobiliprotein monomers, which are heterodimers composed of α and β subunits, and their respective chromophores linked via thioether bond.

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Description

HealthDiva C-phycocyanin can be used in many practices, it is particularly used in medicine and food applications. It can also be used in genetics, where it acts as a tracer due to its natural fluorescence.

Phycocyanin 1

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Phycocyanin Capsules – HealthDiva

Benefits

It is significantly inhibited the growth of human leukemia K562 cells. It is a natural product, could be a possible chemotherapeutic agent through its apoptotic Activity against tumor cells.

C—Phycocyanin, the major light-harvesting biliprotein from Spirulina plants is of greater importance because of its various biological and pharmacological properties. It is potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties.

A small dosage of this supplement daily maintains or accelerates normal control cell functions that prevent the generation of malignancy such as cancer or inhibits its growth or recurrence.

Hepatoprotection and Detoxification

C—Phycocyanin significantly decreases Kupffer cell phagocytosis and the associated respiratory burst activity, effects that may contribute to the abolition of oxidative stress induces TNF-alpha response and NO production by hyperthyroid state.

HealthDiva C-phycocyanin provides protection to Liver Enzymes. The antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin protects the renal cell against oxalate— induced injury and may be a nephroprotective agent.

Neuroprotection

Excess oxygen in the brain generates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS causes damages to brain neurons, leading to strokes. C-phycocyanin scavenges hydrogen peroxide, a type of ROS species, from the inside of astrocyte, reducing oxidative stress.

Anti-Oxidant

C—Phycocyanin: a biliprotein with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. The analysis revealed the antioxidant and antiurolithic potential of C-phycocyanin thereby projecting it as a promising therapeutic agent against renal cell injury associated with kidney stone formation.

C-Phycocyanin is able to reduce the steady-state concentration of peroxyl radicals. C-Phycocyanin is able to scavenge OH & RO radicals. It also inhibits liver microsomal IIpId peroxidation.

The study has demonstrated that C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from spirulina plants has the ability to inhibit the O(-0, a potent physiological inorganic toxin, hence has the potential to be used as a therapeutic agent.

C-Phycocyanin

Unique Quality: Healthdiva C-phycocyanin supplements have unique and exceptional quality. C-Phycocyanin has both anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties. C-PC, being an anti-oxidant, scavenges these damage-inducing radicals, hence being an anti-inflammation agent.

Why Healthdiva C-phycocyanin? You can take C-Phycocyanin capsules as it is an Antioxidant, Anticancer and it also helps in detoxification. It also strengthens the immune system, fighting fatigue, anemia and accelerating recovery after physical exertion.

C-phycocyanin (C-PC) can be used as a natural blue food coloring. This food colorant can only be used for low-temperature prepared goods because of its inability to maintaining its blue coloring in high heats unless there is an addition of preservatives or sugars.

C-PC can be used for numerous types of foods, one of which being syrups. C-PC can be used for syrups ranging from green to blue colors. It can have different green tints by adding yellow food colorings.

Boost Immunity- Support immune function by fighting off- invading germs, toxins, and help lowering inflammation. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) has anti-cancer effects. Cancer happens when cells continue to grow uncontrollably. And it Stops them to grow.

Suggested Usage: Adults take one (1) Capsule once daily preferably with a meal or as directed by a healthcare professional. 

A Complete Study On C-Phycocyanin

Phycocyanin – Introduction & Scientific Studies. 

WHAT IS Phycocyanin ?

Phycocyanin is an important molecule extracted from Spirulina platensis, a 3.6 billion years old known microalgae. It is a natural, water soluble and non-toxic molecule with potent anti-cancer, anti oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Various research studies also support strong cytoprotective, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective profile of C-phycocyanin. (Chen and Wong 2008; Romay et. al., 2003; Vadiraja et. al., 1998). This natural molecule is an innovative revolution not only to address the unique health care needs of newly diagnosed cancer patients and patients already undergoing cancer treatment (including chemotherapies, radiotherapies etc) but is also a cancer preventive measure.

For many cancer patients the side effects of treatments have an adverse impact on their health and immunity, often making it difficult for them to continue with strong medical therapies. Its unique anti-cancer and cancer preventive profile is based on research proven scientific accreditations. 

Phycocyanin

Why Phycocyanin ?

In the current times dissipated lifestyle and other counting factors such as dietary, physical, mental mismanagements, drug administration, intoxicification’s in the form of chemotherapies and chemical toxicities are adding up to the cumulative risk of cancer occurrence, consumption of C-Phycocyanin is essentially required.

C-Phycocyanin helps fight and revive against cancer and address other similar conditions which may deteriorate the quality of health. It provides protection and vitality to the body by boosting the immune system. Due to its strong anti-oxidant properties it detoxifies and rejuvenates the overall health profile.

Phycocyanin is safe?

Phycocyanin is naturally designed to meet the unique needs of cancer prevention attributes and is being presented with the essential levels of purity and consistency. Zero toxicity and accomplish safety profiles of this wonder molecule, make it a choice of health-conscious individuals as well as cancer fighting subjects without any hesitation.

Cancer and Cancer Treatment: 

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the body, which is caused by the stepwise accumulation of mutations that affect cell growth control, differentiation and survival. Growth of cancer cells is regulated by the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, which is a normal physiological process serving to eliminate unwanted cells and maintain homeostasis in healthy tissue. Hence inducing apoptosis is a desired mode of treating cancer (Tansuwanwong et. al., 2006).

Phycocyanin induces apoptosis in the existing and proliferating cancer cells and being a natural antioxidant, it also helps getting rid of any cancer promoting oxidative stress. C-Phycocyanin lowers the amount of cyclooxygenase-2 which is up regulated in cancer cells.

It is established that C-Phycocyanin induces apoptosis in cancer cells by changing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (Bcl-2 is an anti-apoptotic protein, Bax is a pro-apoptotic protein, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax represents the degree of apoptosis) and the release of Cyt-c in the cytosol (Lu et. al., 2011).

Cancer Therapy by inducing Apoptosis:

  • Growth inhibition of Cancer cells

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  • Alters Bax/Bcl-2 ratio
  • Releases cytochrome-c from mitochondria to cytoplasm
  • Activates the caspase cascade
  • Induces DNA fragmentation
  • Hence induces cell death by Apoptosis

References:

Tansuwanwong S, Hiroyuki Y, Kohzoh I, Vinitketkumnuen U. (2006). Induction of Apoptosis in RKO Colon Cancer Cell Line by an Aqueous Extract of Millingtonia hortensis. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 7: 641-644.

Lu C, Li CJ, Wu D, Lu JM, Tu F, Wang L. (2011). Induction of apoptosis by Rhizoma Paridis saponins in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 5(8): 1086-1091.

Protection against Cancer Suspects:

C-Phycocyanin is one of its kind natural molecule, which has an established promising value as a cancer preventive moiety. In addition to its anti-cancerous & apoptotic effects, its free radical scavenging ability or Cancer preventive antioxidant capacity is also one important asset (Romay et. al., 1998).

Many problems that affect health and well-being are caused by oxidative stress, which is characterized by excessive formation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) that cannot be counteracted by one’s normal antioxidant defense system. In order to protect the body against the consequences of oxidative stress, a successful approach consists of improving one’s antioxidant profile is needed.

Therefore adding additional natural antioxidants is helpful to prevent free radical-induced cell damage. Phycocyanin is able to scavenge free radicals in the cells, protecting cells from damage which prevents or lessens the severity of a disease (Wang et. al., 2007).

Studies have shown that C-phycocyanin is an efficient scavenger of oxygen free radicals (Bhat et. al., 2001) and also reacts with other oxidants of pathological relevance such as HOCl and ONOO thus proving that the therapeutic use of C-phycocyanin appears to be promising.

It’s easy digestibility and water solubility, make it a possible natural agent for reducing the harmful effects of oxidative stress without any risk or toxicity.

References:

Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, González R, Ledon N, García. (1998). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res. 47(1):36-41.

Wang, H., Liu, Y., Gao, X., Carter, C.L. and Liu, Z.R. (2007) The recombinant beta subunit of C-phycocyanin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Cancer Lett 247: 150–158.

Bhat VB, Madyastha KM (2001). Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 285: 262-266.

Adjuvant Cancer Therapy and Palliative Care

A further reason for using C-Phycocyanin in cancer therapy is that the regular intakes of this molecule have been shown to boost immune responses.

The particular types of immune cells involved in cancer control, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and monocytes, function more effectively with increased intakes of C-phycocyanin (Abd-EI BHH and EIBaroty GS, 2013). Therefore, the likely benefits of C-Phycocyanin in clinical cancer therapy especially when used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy are:

  1. Improved response of cancers to chemotherapy
  2. Increased capacity of the immune system to fight cancer spread
  3. Reduced risk that chemotherapy may eventually give rise to a new cancer

References:

Abd-El Baky HH, El-Baroty GS. (2013). Healthy Benefit of Microalgal Bioactive Substances. Journal of Aquatic Science. 1(1): 11-23.

Phycocyanin as Anti – Oxidant:

One of the most widely studied effects of Phycocyanin is its antioxidant capacity and its free radical scavenging ability, both in-vivo & in-vitro (Romay et. al., 1998). Anti-oxidant potential of phycocyanin is mainly attributed to its phycobilisome (chromophore) moiety (Patel et. al., 2006) and partially to its apoprotein counterpart (Apt et. al., 1995) as the former shows high degree of conjugation of double bonds which stabilizes free radicals.

It is well known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in a diversity of important processes in medicine including inflammation, atherosclerosis, cancer, reperfusion injury etc. One way by which a substance can interfere with these processes, is by acting as an antioxidant. Phycocyanin is able to scavenge free radicals in the cells, protecting cells from damage which prevents or lessens the severity of the diseases (Wang et. al., 2007).

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References:

Romay C, Armesto J, Remirez D, González R, Ledon N, García. (1998). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res. 47(1):36-41.

Patel A, Mishra S, Ghosh PK. (2006). Antioxidant potential of C-Phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lynbgya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 43: 25-31.

Apt K.E., Collier J.L., Grossman A.R. (1995): Evolution of the phycobiliproteins. Journal of Molecular Biology, 248: 79–96.

Wang, H., Liu, Y., Gao, X., Carter, C.L. and Liu, Z.R. (2007) The recombinant beta subunit of C-phycocyanin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Cancer Lett. 247: 150–158.

Phycocyanin as Anti – Inflammatory

Inflammation is the body’s attempt at self-protection; the aim being to remove harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens – and begin the healing process. characterized by heat, redness, swelling, and pain.

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C-Phycocyanin has a preventive effect against inflammation by following mechanisms (Pardhasaradhi et al., 2000; (Romay et al., 2003; Deng and Chow, 2011; Joventino et al., 2012). 

Scavenge free radicals, including alkoxyl, hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals Suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression Inhibits liver microsomal lipid peroxidation Inhibits proinflammatory cytokine formation, such as TNFα Suppresses cyclooxygeanase-2 (COX-2) expression Decreases prostaglandin E(2) production Reduce myeloperoxidase production Decreases nitrite production Inhibition of Platelets aggregation Suppress the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via preventing degradation of cytosolic IκB-α

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References:

Pardhasaradhi BVV, Ali AM, Kumari AL, et al. (2003). C-Phycocyanin-mediated apoptosis in AK-5 tumor cells. involves down-regulation of Bcl-2 and generation of ROS. Mol Cancer Ther 2:1165-1170.

Pycocyanin as Immune System Modulator:

A further reason for using C-phycocyanin in cancer therapy is that the regular intakes of this molecule have been shown to boost immune responses. Therefore, the likely benefits of C-Phycocyanin in clinical cancer therapy especially when used as an adjuvant to chemotherapy are: improved response of cancers to chemotherapy, boost immune system to fight cancer spread; and reduced risk that chemotherapy may eventually give rise to a new cancer.

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Phycocyanin affects the stem cells found in bone marrow, which produce white blood cells that make up the cellular immune system and red blood cells that oxygenate the body. C-Phycocyanin emulates the affect of the hormone erythropoetin, (EPO), which is produced by healthy kidneys and regulates bone marrow stem cell production of red blood cells (Kozlenko and Henson, 1998).

C-Phycocyanin enhances secretary IgA antibody response and suppresses allergic IgE antibody response in mice immunized with antigen-entrapped biodegradable microparticles (Nemoto-Kawamura et. al., 2004).

The particular types of immune cells involved in cancer control, cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells, function more effectively with increased intakes of C-Phycocyanin (Arias et. al., 2011).

References:

Abd-El Baky HH, El-Baroty GS. (2013). Healthy Benefit of Microalgal Bioactive Substances. Journal of Aquatic Science. 1(1): 11-23.

Fan M, Liao Z, Wang RX, Xu N. (2013). Isolation and antibacterial activity of anabaena C-phycocyanin. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12(15): 1869- 1873.

Kozlenko R, Henson RH. (1998). Effects on the AIDS virus, cancer and the immune system.

C-Phycocyanin enhances secretary IgA antibody response and suppresses allergic IgE antibody response in mice immunized with antigen-entrapped biodegradable microparticles. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 50(2):129-36.

Phycocyanin for Leukemia:

Blood in our body is composed of three types of cells which are suspended in liquid plasma: 

  1. White blood cells that are helpful in fighting against infection
  2. Red blood cells that carry oxygen to all the body parts
  3. Platelets that help in clotting of blood.

Leukemia is a malignant neoplasm of the hematopoietic stem cells characterized by diffuse replacement of the bone marrow and/or peripheral blood by neoplastic cells (Prasad et al., 2013).

In leukemic condition body starts to produce more white blood cells, which are immature and do not function properly.

Symptoms of leukemia

  1. Poor Blood clotting
  2. Affected immune system
  3. Anemia
  4. Nausea
  5. Fever
  6. Chills
  7. Night sweats
  8. Flu-like symptoms
  9. Tiredness.
  10. Weight loss: Liver/Spleen enlarged & Patient may feel full and will eat less.
  11. Headache: Cancerous cells have invaded the CNS (central nervous system).

C-Phycocyanin intake is accounted to be beneficial in leukemia as its administration is reported to enhance Bone Marrow Reproduction, Thymus Growth and Spleen Cell proliferation in animal models. It is also helpful in stimulation of hematopoiesis especially erythropoiesis i.e. red blood cells production (Gershwin and Belay, 2007). 

It is reported to exert its anticancer potential in human myeloid leukemia K-562 cells by inhibiting the proliferation of these cancer cells (Liu et al., 2000) and inducing apoptosis to them by lowering Bcl-2/Bax ratio, DNA fragmentation & PARP cleavage (Subhashini et al., 2004).

Hence C-Phycocyanin intake could be represented as potential candidates for leukemic patients. 

Phycocyanin comes as 200 mg Capsules. An intake of 2 Capsules of 200 mg each daily is widely recommended or as directed by your physician.

References:

Prasad C, Singh SB, Chandra S, Prakash S, Prakash A. (2013). Screening for different type of leukemia by observing peripheral blood smear in patients of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 4(1): 1256-1261.

Gershwin ME, Belay A. (2007). Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health. Boca Raton, CRC Press, pp-124.

Liu Y, Xu L, Cheng N, Lin L, Zhang C. (2000). Inhibitory effect of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on the growth of human leukemia K562 cells.

Journal of Applied Phycology. 12(2):125-130. Subhashini, J. Mahipal SV, Reddy MC, Mallikarjuna Reddy M, Rachamallu A, Reddanna P. (2004). Molecular mechanisms in C-phycocyanin induced apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line-K562, Biochem. Pharmaco., 68 (3):, 453-462.

Phycocyanin for Liver cancer:

Liver is located at the right side of the stomach under the right rib. It produces biles that help in absorbing nutrients from intestine. It stores and breakdown nutrients absorbed from intestine It filters and stores blood. Hepatocellular carcinoma or Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, particularly with a relatively higher incidence rate of more than 20 – 150 cases per 1, 00,000 per year in certain Asian and African areas (Shen et al., 2005).

One of the major risk factor for liver cancer is alcohol. It can cause liver cirrhosis, which is the most common precursor to liver cancer. The magnitude of liver cancer is stronger if you are infected with the hepatitis B or C virus along with alcohol consumption (McKillop and Schrum, 2005). 

Although surgery and liver transplantation provide better outcomes, most patients are not candidates due to advanced disease, lack of donor availability, or presence of various disorders (Narvaez-Lugo et al., 2007). Further, in view of serious side effects and resistance of liver cancer towards chemotherapy there is need of shifting toward natural compounds without undesirable effects.

Phycocyanin intake is accounted to be beneficial in liver cancer as it stimulates immune system and its antioxidant profile helps in reduction of oxidative stress. Phycocyanin is also reported to inhibit Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) of human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cell line towards doxorubicin through downregulation of reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2.

It increases the accumulation of doxorubicin in doxorubicin resistant cells and decreases the PGE-2 levels (Nishanth et al., 2010). One another study reported the antiproliferation effect of C-phycocyanin against liver cancer Hep-G2 cell line and induction of apoptosis by interaction with membrane associated β- tubulin and glyceraldehydes-3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), causing polymerization of microtubules and actin filaments leading to G0/G1 cycle arrest (Shanab et al., 2012).

Hence, Phycocyanin could be the new potential anticancer drug for therapy of Human Liver Cancer. 

Phycocyanin comes as 200 mg Capsules. An intake of 2 Capsules of 200 mg each daily is widely recommended or as directed by your physician.

References:

Shen DHY, Hsieh CB, Cheng CY, Huang WS. (2005). Current Status of Imaging Diagnosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: from Anatomical to Molecular Approach. Ann Nucl Med Sci. 19:1-6.

McKillop, I, Schrum, L 2005, ‘Alcohol and liver cancer’, 2005, Alcohol, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 195-203.

Narvaez-Lugo J, Cáceres WW, Toro DH, Pérez-González MRP, Almodovar AA, Maldonado-Mercado AM, Salgado N, Rivera-Sanfeliz GM (2008). Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Retrospective Review of the Veterans Affairs Caribbean Healthcare System. Cancer Control. 15(1): 80-85. 

Nishanth RP, Ramakrishna BS, Jyotsna RG, Roy KR, Reddy GV, Reddy PK, Reddanna P. (2010). C-Phycocyanin inhibits MDR1 through reactive oxygen species and cyclooxygenase-2 mediated pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Eur J Pharmacol. 649(1-3):74-83.

Shanab SMM, Mostafa SSM, Shalaby EA, Mahmoud GI. (2012). Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer Activities. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2012: 608-615.

Phycocyanin for Colon cancer:

Colon cancer is a neoplastic disease of the large intestine which begins at a structure called the caecum, located in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, and continues through all portions of the abdomen to its junction with the rectum, located in the deep pelvis. It can be originated from both inherited and somatic genetic alterations that develop over the course of a lifetime (Yeatman, 2001).

Further, Cytokines and transcription factors contribute toward carcinogenesis by stimulating levels of reactive nitrogen species, activating antiapoptotic pathway and tumor progression. COX-2 over expression additionally leads to resistance of apoptosis, which enhance metastasis of colorectal cancer. PTEN is an important negative regulator of cell survival signaling and its role is the downregulation of Akt, which promotes cell survival & proliferation. Colorectal cancer cells have decreased expressions of PTEN (Saini et al., 2012).

In a recent study by Thangam et al., 2013, phycocyanin induced nuclear apoptosis accompanied by G0/G1 cell arrest and DNA fragmentation in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. Anticancer potential of Phycocyanin has been studied extensively by Shankar N Sanyal’s research group at the Punjab University, Chandigarh against induced tumor in animal models.

Apoptosis was observed in phycocyanin treated animal through mitochondrial pathway via activation of caspases and Bcl-2 downregulation (Saini and Sanyal., 2012). Moreover, phycocyanin was evaluated individually and also adjuvant to some other anticancer molecule. It decreases expression of proinflammatory cytokines, transcriptional factors, COX-2 and thus reduced PGE-2 level demonstrated its chemo-preventive role (Saini et al., 2012). It upregulates the expression of PTEN in colonic tissues and thus inhibit PI3/Akt pathway (Saini and Sanyal., 2012).

Thus, it was observed that it enhanced the anticancer effect of the molecule along with demonstrating its own anticancer potential. Result illustrated that combinatorial studies can provide significant improvement in safety and effectiveness over the monotherapy regimens. A combination of two drugs may restrain precancerous colon polyps, opening a new possible opportunity for chemoprevention of colon cancer

Hence, Phycocyanin could be the new potential anticancer drug for therapy of Human Colon Cancer. 

Phycocyanin comes as 200 mg Capsules. An intake of 2 Capsules of 200 mg each daily is widely recommended or as directed by your physician.

References:

Yeatman TJ. (2001). Colon Cancer. Encyclopedia of life sciences Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Nature Publishing Group.

Saini MK, Sankar Nath Sanyal SN and Vaiphei K (2012). Piroxicam and C-Phycocyanin Mediated Apoptosis in 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine Dihydrochloride Induced Colon Carcinogenesis: Exploring the Mitochondrial Pathway. Nutrition and Cancer. 64(3): 409-418.

Saini MK, Sankar Nath Sanyal SN. (2012). PTEN regulates apoptotic cell death through PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway in DMH induced early colon carcinogenesis in rat. Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 93(1): 135-146.

Saini MK, Vaiphei K, Sanyal SN. (2012). Chemoprevention of DMH-induced rat colon carcinoma initiation by combination administration of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin. Mol Cell Biochem. 361(1-2):217-28.

Phycocyanin for Breast cancer:

Breast cancer originates from breast cells and usually begins from the inner lining of milk ducts (ductal carcinoma) or the lobules (lobular carcinoma) that provide them milk.

Phycocyanin effect as a photosensitizer in Photodynamic therapy in case of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was studied (Li et al. 2010). It was observed that Phycocyanin is an ideal photosensitizer which accumulates in tumor tissue and attracts He-Ne laser to target at cancer tissues.

Since phycocyanin is a natural pigment having no toxic effects, it was suggested to be a good substitute to highly toxic conventional photosensitizers or chemotherapeutic drugs. In addition to working as photosensitizer, it causes inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation and morphological changes like blebs formation, chromatin condensation and loss of microvilli. Phycocyanin was able to induce apoptosis by downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, NF-kB factors and activation of caspase 9.

Hence, Phycocyanin could be the new potential anticancer drug for therapy of Human Breast Cancer. 

Phycocyanin comes as 200 mg Capsules. An intake of 2 Capsules of 200 mg each daily is widely recommended or as directed by your physician.

References:

Li B, Chu X, Gao M, Li W. (2010). Apoptotic mechanism of MF-7 breast cells invivo and invitro induced by photodynamic therapy with C-Phycocyanin. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin. 80-89.

Phycocyanin for Cervical cancer:

Cervical cancer occurs due to uncontrolled growth of cervix cells. Phycocyanin from S. Platensis was evaluated to study its mechanism of action against Human cervical cancer cell line HeLa (Li et al. 2006). Treatment of HeLa cells with Phycocyanin increased the percentage of hypodiploid population of cells. DNA fragmentation was also observed in treated cells.

Phycocyanin was able to reduce the levels of antiapoptotic proteins like Bcl-2 and promote the expression of death receptor genes like Fas/FasL and ICAM. Caspases play a central role in virtually all known apoptotic signaling pathways and a higher level of caspase cascade was analyzed in phycocyanin treated cells. There was translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c to cytoplasm in response to apoptosis. Moreover, electron-micrographs of treated cancer cells also revealed the characteristic apoptotic features.

Hence, Phycocyanin could be the new potential anticancer drug for therapy of Human Cervical Cancer. 

Phycocyanin comes as 200 mg Capsules. An intake of 2 Capsules of 200 mg each daily is widely recommended or as directed by your physician.

References:

Li B, Gao M, Zhang X,Chu X. (2006). Molecular immune mechanism of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 43: 155–164.

Phycocyanin for Prostate cancer:

Prostate cancer is the abnormal growth of prostate cells. There are various types of cells in prostate, but in majority of cases cancer starts in gland cells. This kind of cancer is known as adenocarcinoma. One another type of cancer is small

cell carcinoma.

Antineoplastic activity of Phycocyanin was evaluated against prostate cancer cell line LnCap in combination with already known anticancer drug Topotecan (Gantar et al., 2012). It was observed that when only 10% (1μM) of the regular dose of Topotecan was combined with Phycocyanin, the cancer cells were killed at a higher rate than when Topotecan was used alone at full dose (10μM).

One of the possible causes of cell death during Phycocyanin– Topotecan pooled treatment is highest levels of ROS production, leading to caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation and further DNA fragmentation. Thus, Phycocyanin working as adjuvant therapy to Topotecan increases the efficacy of drug and also reduces the amount of dose to be taken.

Hence, Phycocyanin could be the new potential anticancer drug for therapy of Human Prostate Cancer. 

References:

Gantar M, Sivanesan Dhandayuthapani S, Rathinavelu A. (2012). Phycocyanin Induces Apoptosis and Enhances the Effect of Topotecan on Prostate Cell Line LNCaP. J Med Food 15 (12): 1091–1095.

Phycocyanin as Hepato-Protective:

Lipid peroxidation mediated by ROS is believed to be an important cause of destruction and damage to cell membranes. Research suggests that Phycocyanin is selective COX-2 inhibitor (Reddy et al., 2000), which significantly inhibits liver microsomal lipid peroxidation thus protecting the liver by preventing oxidative stress in hepatocytes acting as hepatoprotective molecule (Sathyasaikumar et al., 2007).

Phycocyanin also inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by Fe+2 – ascorbic acid or the free radical initiator 2, 2’ azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) (Bermejo-Bescos et al 2008). Furthermore, it reduces carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- induced lipid peroxidation. The inhibition of COX-2 by phycocyanin also known to be involved in its hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced liver damage.

References:

Reddy CM, Bhat VB, Kiranmai G, Reddy MN, Reddanna P, Madyasthat KM. (2000). Selective lnhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 by C-Phycocyanin, a Biliprotein from Spirulina platensis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 27( 7): 599 – 603.

Sathyasaikumar KV, Swapna I, Reddy PV, Murthy CR, Roy KR, Dutta-Gupta A, Senthilkumaran B, Reddanna P. (2007). Co-administration of CPhycocyanin ameliorates thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy in Wistar rats. J. Neurol. Sci. 252, 67–75.

Bermejo-Bescos, P., Pinero-Estrada, E., & Villar del Fresno, A. M. (2008). Neuroprotection by Spirulina platensis protean extract and phycocyanin against iron-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Toxicology In Vitro. 22: 1496–1502.

Phycocyanin as Neuro-Protective:

Recent studies show that immune-modulatory properties, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities contribute to the neuroprotective effects of Phycocyanin. A scientific study demonstrates that either the prophylactic or the therapeutic application of Phycocyanin was able to significantly reduce the infarct volume, and also protect hippocampal neurons from death, induced by global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury in gerbils (Penton-Rol et al, 2011). Studies reveal that Phycocyanin is a potent platelet aggregation inhibitor with a potential to hamper arterial thromboembolism in conjunction with its neuroprotective ability.

References:

Pentón-Rol G, Marín-Pridaa J, Pardo-Andreua G, Martínez-Sáncheza G, Acosta-Medinaa EF, Valdivia-Acostaa A, Lagumersindez-Denisa N, Rodríguez- Jiménezb E, Llópiz-Arzuagab A, López-Saurab PA, Guillén-Nietob G, Pentón-Arias E. (2011). C-Phycocyanin is neuroprotective against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in gerbils. Brain Research Bulletin.1-11.

Phycocyanin as Nephro-Protective:

Phycocyanin protects the integrity of the renal cell by stabilizing the free radical mediated LPO and protect against oxalate induced nephro injury (Farooq et al., 2004). Oxalate causes its deleterious effects to kidneys, liver and the hematological system by inducing oxidative stress, which further leads to membrane integrity loss, renal cell damage and, finally, calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) produce a great variety of stable, diffusible saturated and unsaturated aldehydes like malondialdehyde (MDA) that are extremely active and can diffuse

within or even escape from the cell and attack targets far from the site of the original free radical initiated event, resulting in cell damage and therefore act as ‘cytotoxic second messengers’. Phycocyanin pre-treatment decreased the LPO and reversed the effects of oxalate on oxidative stress parameters by interacting with hydroxyl radical and by rebalancing the GSH content, catalase and G6PD activity in oxalate treated animals (Farooq et al., 2006).

References:

Farooq SM, Asokan D, Sakthivel R, Kalaiselvi P, Varalakshmi P. (2004). Salubrious effect of C-phycocyanin against oxalate-mediated renal cell injury. Clin Chim Acta. 348(1-2):199-205.

Phycocyanin as Cardio protective:

Cardioprotective effect of Phycocyanin against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury in an isolated perfused Langendorff heart model was observed via modulation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways (Khan et al., 2006).

Another study reports the possible role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in cardio protection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress, without compromising anti-tumor effect of doxorubicin. Further, chronic consumption of Se-rich Spirulina phycocyanin powerfully prevents the development of atherosclerosis (Riss et al., 2007). Phycocyanin is also reported for its role as a potential therapeutic for plaque localization and its regression (Morcos et al., 1988).

References:

Morcos NC, Berns M, Henry WL. (1988). Phycocyanin: laser activation, cytotoxic effects, and uptake in human atherosclerotic plaque. Lasers Surg Med. 8(1):10-7.

Khan M, Varadharaj S, Ganesan LP, Shobha JC, Naidu MU, Parinandi NL, Tridandapani S, Kutala VK, Kuppusamy P. (2006). C-phycocyanin protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart through involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK signaling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 290(5): H2136-45.

Khan M, Shobha JC, Mohan IK, Naidu MU, Sundaram C, Singh S, Kuppusamy P, Kutala VK. (2005). Protective effect of Spirulina against doxorubicininduced cardiotoxicity. Phytother Res. 19(12):1030-37.

Riss J, Décordé K, Sutra T, Delage M, Baccou JC, Jouy N, Brune JP, Oréal H, Cristol JP, Rouanet JM. (2007). Phycobiliprotein C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis is powerfully responsible for reducing oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase expression induced by an atherogenic diet in hamsters. J Agric Food Chem. 55(19): 7962-67.

Phycocyanin in Acute Lung Injury:

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe complication, and characterized by damage to the epithelial and endothelial cells in lungs, thereby increasing pulmonary vascular permeability, pulmonary edema, and sequestration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which finally impairs respiratory function.

It is generally accepted that ALI is an excessive uncontrolled inflammatory response mediated by several pro-inflammatory mediators. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, is thought to play a key role in the development of ALI through stimulation of recruitment of inflammatory cells into lungs and production of several inflammatory and hemostatic cytokines.

Phycocyanin exhibits an anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production possibly by suppressing nuclear transcription factor-kB (NF-kB) activation, a key transcription factor promoting proinflammatory gene expression. Leung et al., 2013 demonstrated that posttreatment of ALI model with CPC significantly reduces the tissue permeability, and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and improves pulmonary histological alterations.

References:

Leung PO, Lee HH, Kung YC, Tsai MF, Chou TZ. (2013). Therapeutic Effect of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from Blue Green Algae in a Rat Model of Acute Lung Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013: 1-11.

Phycocyanin for Detoxification:

Phycocyanin has been shown to increase the expression of essential enzymes and biochemicals related to the balanced function of liver and Kidney. Phycocyanin has been documented to modulate the activities of Cyt p-450, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalases, Alanine Transaminases, Aspartate Transaminases (Ivanova et al 2010).

References:

Ivanova KG, Stankova KG, Nikolov VN, Georgieva RT, Minkova KM, Gigova LG, Rupova IT, Boteva RN. (2010). The Biliprotein C-Phycocyanin Modulates the Early Radiation Response: A Pilot Study. Mutat Res. 695 (1-2): 40- 45.

Phycocyanin in Melanogenesis:

Human skin colour curtail from the epidermis where the pigment-producing cells melanocytes are localized to produce melanin. Its synthesis begins with catalysation of the substrates L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine to produce L-DOPA via phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), tyrosinase and partly tyrosinase hydroxylase 1 (TH-1) (Gillbro JM and Olsson MJ, 2010).

When ultraviolet rays penetrate the skin and damage DNA, thymidine dinucleotide fragments from damaged DNA will trigger melanogenesis and cause the melanocyte to produce melanosomes, which are then transferred by dendrite to the top layer of keratinocytes (Ellar et al., 1997). Although melanogenesis is necessary for the prevention

of DNA damage and cancer caused by UV irradiation, excessive accumulation of melanin can also cause melanoma (Kawano et al., 2007).

Phycocyanin is able to serve as a potential melanogenesis inhibitor as it effectively restrained the expression of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis, through the regulatory mechanisms at transcriptional (through p38 MAPK pathway on CREB activation) and post-translational (through MAPK/ERK pathway on MITF phosphorylation/degradation) levels. This phycobiliprotein exerted combinatory activities including antioxidative capacity and the regulative ability of tyrosinase expression to modulate melanogenesis (Wu et al., 2011).

References:

Gillbro JM, Olsson MJ. (2011). The melanogenesis and mechanisms of skin-lightening agents – existing and new approaches. International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 33(3): 210-221.

Eller MS, Maeda T, Magnoni C, Atwal D, Gilchrest BA (1997). Enhancement of DNA repair in human skin cells by thymidine dinucleotides: evidence for ap53-mediated mammalian SOS response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (23): 12627–32.

Kawano M, Matsuyama K, Miyamae Y, Shinmoto H, Kchouk ME, Morio T, Shigemori H, Isoda H. (2007). Antimelanogenesis effect of Tunisian herb Thymelaea hirsuta extract on B16 murine melanoma cells. Exp Dermatol. 16(12): 977-84.

Li-Chen Wu LC, Yu-Yun Lin YY, Yang SY, Weng YT, Tsai YT. (2011). Antimelanogenic effect of c-phycocyanin through modulation of tyrosinase expression by upregulation of ERK and downregulation of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Journal of Biomedical Science. 18: 74-84. 

Phycocyanin in Wound Healing:

Wound healing is a fundamental response to tissue injury that involves a complex set of cellular, physiological, and molecular events targeted toward the restoration of the structural and functional integrity of the damaged tissue.

Homeostasis, Inflammation, Proliferation of Keratinocytes & Fibroplast and Tissue remodeling/regeneration are the four steps involved in wound healing. Phycocyanin directly enhances wound repair by its anti-oxidant and scavenging destructive free radicals mechanism. Secondly, stimulation of keratinocyte is one mechanism by which PSE might enhance wound repair process (Gur et al., 2013).

References:

Gur CS, Erdogan DK, Onbasılar I, Atilla P, Cakar N, Gurhan ID. (2013). In vitro and in vivo investigations of the wound healing effect of crude Spirulina extract and C-phycocyanin. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 7(8): 425-433.

Who Should Consume Phycocyanin ?

Cancer suspected subjects.

Newly diagnosed Cancer patients.

Patients already undergoing Cancer treatment.

Additional information

Weight 0.20 kg

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